Php syntax and programmatical grammer explanation

I have a piece of code that needed to be directly translated from php to I would like to ask, what do these next expressions meant in simple English terms? Maybe a little bit(or more) of an elaboration would be nice. Here goes.

1.    foreach ($_SESSION[''] as $variable1 => $variable2) {}
2.    $variable .= <<<EOD{ "a":"1", "b":"2","c":"3" },EOD

I would like to understand what they meant. And maybe a little advice on how to apply it in Thank you so muchh in advance!

Source: syntax

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